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Meteorological and solar radiation data are collected using a Campbell Scientific, Inc. datalogger (21X 1M 1987-14 September 1993, 21XL 14 September 1993- 12 October 1999, 23X 12 Oct. 1999-December 2011, CR3000 Dec. 2011-present). All sensors are sampled every 2 seconds and all data are summarized every 3 minutes, hourly and at the end of every 24-hour period. Hourly summary data units are Eastern Standard Time (EST), where 100 is midnight to 1 a.m. EST and 2400 is 11 p.m. to midnight EST. Three minute summary meteorological and solar radiation data have been collected since 2011 and are available upon request. Snow data are collected to the nearest 0.5 inch using a ruler and a snow depth gauge or ground measurements made within 12 hours of the completion of a snow event. The meteorological and solar radiation instruments are located in a flat, open field at an elevation of 128 m. GPS coordinates for the site are: N41.785823 W073.741447.

VARIABLE DESCRIPTIONS WITH UNITS

DAILY

  • DATE Date in MMDDYYYY format where MM is month number, DD is date number and YYYY is year
  • SD_WS Standard deviation of wind speed (meters/sec) (1988 - 1999)
  • AVE_SWS Scalar mean wind speed (m/sec)
  • AVE_RWS Resultant mean wind speed (m/sec)
  • AVE_RWD Resultant mean wind direction (degrees)
  • WD_SD Standard deviation of wind direction (degrees)
  • AVE_BP Average barometric pressure (mm Hg)
  • AVE_TEMP Average air temperature (degrees C)
  • AVE_RH Average relative humidity (%)
  • TOT_PREC Total precipitation (mm)
  • MIN_TEMP Minimum air temperature (degrees C)
  • MIN_TEMT Time of minimum air temperature (EST)
  • MIN_RH Minimum relative humidity (%)
  • MIN_RHT Time of minimum relative humidity (EST)
  • MIN_NETR Minimum net radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • MAX_WS Maximum wind speed (meters/sec)
  • MAX_WST Time of maximum wind speed (EST)
  • MAX_TEMP Maximum air temperature (degrees C)
  • MAX_TEMT Time of maximum air temperature (EST)
  • MAX_RH Maximum relative humidity (%)
  • MAX_RHT Time of maximum relative humidity (EST)
  • MAX_GSW Maximum global short-wave radiation (Watts/m2)
  • MAX_GSWT Time of maximum global short-wave radiation (EST)
  • MAX_DSW Maximum diffuse short-wave radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • MAX_DSWT Time of maximum diffuse short-wave radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • MAX_NETR Maximum net radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • MAX_NETT Time of maximum net radiation (EST)
  • MAX_GPAR Maximum global PAR (micromoles/m^2-sec)
  • MAX_GPAT Time of maximum global PAR (micromoles/m^2-sec)
  • MAX_DPAR Maximum diffuse PAR (micromoles/m^2-sec)
  • MAX_DPAT Time of maximum diffuse PAR (EST)
  • TOT_GSW Total global short-wave radiation (KJoule/m^2)
  • TOT_DSW Total diffuse short-wave radiation (KJoule/m^2)
  • TOT_GPAR Total global PAR (mole/m^2)
  • TOT_DPAR Total diffuse PAR (mole/m^2)
  • TOT_NETR Total net radiation (KJoule/m^2)
  • POT_PAR Potential PAR (mole/m^2)
  • POT_SW Potential short-wave radiation (cal/cm^2/day)
  • KT_PAR Atmospheric transmission of potential PAR (%)
  • KT_SW Atmospheric transmission of potential short-wave radiation (%)

HOURLY

  • DATE Date in MMDDYYYY format where MM is month number, DD is date number and YYYY is year
  • HOUR Hour in hour_minute format in Eastern Standard Time. Note that data are from the preceding hour. For example, data for hour 0100 are from midnight to 1:00 a.m EST.
  • SD_WS Standard deviation of wind speed (meters/sec) (1988-1999)
  • AVE_SWS Scalar mean wind speed (m/sec)
  • AVE_RWS Resultant mean wind speed (m/sec)
  • AVE_RWD Resultant mean wind direction (degrees)
  • WD_SD Standard deviation of wind direction (degrees)
  • AVE_BP Average barometric pressure (mm Hg)
  • AVE_TEMP Average air temperature (degrees C)
  • AVE_RH Average relative humidity (%)
  • AVE_GSW Average global short-wave radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • AVE_DSW Average diffuse short-wave radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • AVE_NETR Average net radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • AVE_GPAR Average global PAR (micromoles/m^2-sec)
  • AVE_DPAR Average diffuse PAR (micromoles/m^2-sec)
  • MIN_TEMP Minimum air temperature (degrees C)
  • MIN_TEMT Time of minimum air temperature (EST)
  • MIN_RH Minimum relative humidity (%)
  • MIN_RHT Time of minimum relative humidity (EST)
  • MIN_GSW Minimum global short-wave radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • MIN_DSW Minimum diffuse short-wave radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • MIN_NETR Minimum net radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • MIN_GPAR Minimum global PAR (micromoles/m^2-sec)
  • MIN_DPAR Minimum diffuse PAR (micromoles/m^2-sec)
  • MAX_WS Maximum wind speed (meters/sec)
  • MAX_WST Time of maximum wind speed (EST)
  • MAX_TEMP Maximum air temperature (degrees C)
  • MAX_TEMT Time of maximum air temperature (EST)
  • MAX_RH Maximum relative humidity (%)
  • MAX_RHT Time of maximum relative humidity (EST)
  • MAX_GSW Maximum global short-wave radiation (Watts/m2)
  • MAX_GSWT Time of maximum global short-wave radiation (EST)
  • MAX_DSW Maximum diffuse short-wave radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • MAX_DSWT Time of maximum diffuse short-wave radiation (EST)
  • MAX_NETR Maximum net radiation (Watts/m^2)
  • MAX_NETT Time of maximum net radiation (EST)
  • MAX_GPAR Maximum global PAR (micromoles/m^2-sec)
  • MAX_GPAT Time of maximum global PAR (EST)
  • MAX_DPAR Maximum diffuse PAR (micromoles/m^2-sec)
  • MAX_DPAT Time of maximum diffuse PAR (EST)
  • TOT_NETR Total net radiation (KJoule/m^2)
  • TOT_GSW Total global short-wave radiation (KJoule/m^2)
  • TOT_DSW Total diffuse short-wave radiation (KJoule/m^2)
  • TOT_GPAR Total global PAR (moles/m^2)
  • TOT_DPAR Total diffuse PAR (moles/m^2)

UV

Beginning with the year 2000, each data file contains two months of data. Data from 1 April 1999 to 12 October 1999 are hourly averages and are in a file called UV1999A. Data from 12 October 1999 onward are 3-minute averages. Data from 12 October 1999 to 31 December 1999 are in a file called UV1999B. For data from 2000 onward, the file naming structure is UVMMMYYYY, where MMM is the month and YYYY is the year. For example, UVJAN2000 contains data from January and February 2000. Data are in comma-delimited fields. Missing values are represented by a single decimal point. Calculations were made using SAS®. The field descriptions are as follows:

  • DATE Date in MMDDYYYY format where MM is month number, DD is date number and YYYY is year.
  • HOUR_MIN Time in Eastern Standard Time; hour_min 100 is midnight to 1:00 a.m.
  • ALT Maximum sun altitude in radians.
  • AVE_UVB Average Diffey UVB in milliWatts per meter squared.
  • DA Day angle in radians
  • DEC Declination in radians.
  • HA Hour angle in radians.
  • SZA Solar zenith angle in degrees.

METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS - MAKE, MODEL, DATES USED, SENSITIVITY, RECOMMENDED SIGNIFICANT FIGURES

Please note that significant figures may be reported beyond the accuracy of the instruments. Data are reported in this manner to maintain the capability of backing out calculations from the raw measurements. Instrument notes including calibration, malfunctions, repairs and anecdotal information is available upon request. The instruments, their accuracy and our recommendation for the number of significant figures to use are:

  • Barometric Pressure, October 1999 - present Campbell Scientific, Inc. Model CS105, sensitivity + 4 mb, recommended significant figs. 4. The barometric pressure sensor is located adjacent to the datalogger in a temperature-controlled room.
  • Net Radiation, 1988 - April 1992, Qualimetrics Fritschen Type Model 3030 3032, sensitivity + 4 mV, recommended significant figs. 2. Net Radiation, April 1992 - March 1994, Radiation and Energy Balance Systems (REBS) Model Q6, March 1994-Sept. 1995, REBS Model Q*6.7, Sept. 1995-present REBS Model Q*7.1, ventilator used Sept 1995-July 2000, sensitivity 0.01 Wm-2-mV, recommended significant figs. 2. Location of sensors: 2 m above a mowed grass surface (1988-July 2002), 2.5 m above mowed grass surface (July 2002-present).
  • PAR, 1988 - present, Li-Cor, Inc. Model LI-190SB, sensitivity 8 mA/1000 mmols-1-m2, recommended significant figs. 3. Location of sensors: 2 m above a mowed grass surface (1988-July 2002), 2.5 m above mowed grass surface (July 2002-present).
  • Precipitation, 1988 - June 2007, Belfort Instrument Co. Universal Recording Rain Gauge, Series 5-780, sensitivity +0.05 inch (1.3 mm), recommended significant figs. 2. Precipitation amount from each event was checked using a standard plastic rain gauge and/or a snow depth / rain gauge. Location of instruments: collector openings are approximately 3 m above a mowed grass surface. July 2007-present, Geonor Precipitation Gauge Model T-200B from co-located USCRN station.
  • Relative Humidity, 1988 - April 1997, Phys Chem Corp. PCRC-11 or PCRC-55, sensitivity + 3%, recommended significant figs. 2. Relative Humidity, April 1997-present, Campbell Scientific, Inc. HMP45C, which uses a Vaisala, Inc., capacitive polymer H chip, sensitivity + 3%, recommended significant figs. 2 Temperature and relative humidity sensors are housed in a motor-aspirated shield (Climatronics Corp. series TS-10) 1.6 m above a mowed grass surface.
  • Shortwave Radiation, 1988 - present, Eppley Laboratory, Inc. Model 8-48, sensitivity 11 m v/Wm-2, recommended significant figs. 3. Location of sensors: 2 m above a mowed grass surface (1988-July 2002), 2.5 m above mowed grass surface (July 2002-present).
  • Temperature, 1988 - Nov. 1998, Campbell Scientific Model 107 or 207, sensitivity + 0.4 deg C, recommended significant figs. 3. Temperature, Nov. 1998 - present, Campbell Scientific, Inc. HMP45C temperature probe, sensitivity + 0.4 deg C, recommended significant figs. 3. Temperature and relative humidity sensors are housed in a motor-aspirated shield (Climatronics Corp. series TS-10) 1.6 m above a mowed grass surface.
  • Ultraviolet Radiation, March 1999 - present, Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc. Model UVB-1, sensitivity + 1.97 watt/m-2 / volt of total UV-B irradiance, spectral response 280-320 nm, cosine response + 5% for 0-60 degree solar zenith angle, recommended significant figs. 4. Location of sensors: 2 m above a mowed grass surface (1988-July 2002), 2.5 m above mowed grass surface (July 2002-present).
  • Wind Speed, 1988 - July 2002, Campbell Scientific, Inc. Model 014A, sensitivity +1.5%, recommended significant figs. 3. Wind Speed, July 2002 - June 2003, Met One Instruments, Inc. Model 50.5 Solid State Wind Sensor, sensitivity +2%, recommended significant figs. 3. Wind Speed, October 2003 - present, Climatronics Corp. sonimometer. Location of sensors: approximately 10 m above a mowed grass surface.
  • Wind Direction, 1988 - July 2002, Campbell Scientific, Inc. Model 024A, sensitivity +5 degrees, recommended significant figs. 2. Wind Direction, July 2002 - June 2003, Met One Instruments, Inc. Model 50.5 Solid State Wind Sensor, sensitivity +3 degrees, recommended significant figs. 3. Wind Speed, October 2003 - present, Climatronics Corp. sonimometer. Location of sensors: approximately 10 m above a mowed grass surface.

METEOROLOGICAL DATA QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL PARAMETERS AND METHODS

The quality of meteorological data collected as part of the Cary Institute Environmental Monitoring Program is assured and controlled at several levels. Instruments are returned to manufacturers for audits and calibration as recommended by the manufacturer or as needed. If an instrument is known to have malfunctioned or if it is not in place for any reason, data are either removed from the database and replaced with missing values, or are replaced with data from a known working instrument. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation has an air monitoring site co-located at the Cary Institute. Temperature data from the DEC program were sometimes used when Cary Institute instruments malfunctioned or were unavailable.

Data are checked for accuracy at several levels. Meteorological data are collected using a Campbell Scientific datalogger. The datalogger assigns out-of-range data a value of either 6999, 9999 or -9999. Data are downloaded from the datalogger on a daily basis and imported into a SAS database. The SAS program used to import data contains range-checking steps. These steps produce a temporary dataset that put out-of-range data and data that are beyond a reasonable range equal to missing values. These data are then checked and missing values are reviewed. At the end of each year, a line graph of raw data is produced together with data from previous years to check for data points that may be outliers. All outliers are checked and, if for any reason the value is suspected to be unreal, the value is replaced with a missing value code.

Instrument notes including calibration schedule, malfunctions and repairs, new instrumentation, anecdotal information etc. can be made available on request.